本文最后更新于2019年05月08日,有任何建议或疑问,欢迎底部讨论。

DVWA(Damn Vulnerable Web Application)是一个用来进行安全脆弱性鉴定的PHP/MySQL Web应用,旨在为安全专业人员测试自己的专业技能和工具提供合法的环境,帮助web开发者更好的理解web应用安全防范的过程。

DVWA共有十个模块:

Brute Force:暴力破解
Command Injection:命令行注入
CSRF:跨站请求伪造
File Inclusion:文件包含
File Upload:文件上传
Insecure CAPTCHA:不安全的验证码
SQL Injection:SQL注入
SQL Injection(Blind):SQL盲注
XSS(Reflected):反射型跨站脚本
XSS(Stored):存储型跨站脚本

Brute Force
Brute Force,暴力破解,即撞库,使用穷举一个个测试来猜解用户账号密码。

Low

<?php
if( isset( $_GET[ 'Login' ] ) ) {
    // Get username
    $user = $_GET[ 'username' ];
    // Get password
    $pass = $_GET[ 'password' ];
    $pass = md5( $pass );

    // Check the database
    $query  = "SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE user = '$user' AND password = '$pass';";
    $result = mysql_query( $query ) or die( '<pre>' . mysql_error() . '</pre>' );

    if( $result && mysql_num_rows( $result ) == 1 ) {
        // Get users details
        $avatar = mysql_result( $result, 0, "avatar" );

        // Login successful
        echo "<p>Welcome to the password protected area {$user}</p>";
        echo "<img src=\"{$avatar}\" />";
    }
    else {
        // Login failed
        echo "<pre><br />Username and/or password incorrect.</pre>";
    }
    mysql_close();
}
?>

该段代码 设置一个登陆的 isset 函数,直接接收用户名、密码,该函数返回的是布尔类型的值,即 true/false (文中用 1、0表示),为 true 时,直接带入数据库查询用户详情,输入输出未做过滤,故可直接暴力破解,且存在 sql注入。

1.暴破
2019-05-08T12:38:29.png
2019-05-08T12:38:38.png

2.post注入
username 为 admin' or '1'='1 密码为空
SELECT * FROM users WHERE user = 'admin' or '1'='1' AND password = '$pass';
(闭合掉sql语句,且or优先and执行)
2019-05-08T12:38:53.png
SELECT * FROM users WHERE user = 'admin' #' AND password = '$pass';
(闭合前面语句,# 号注释掉后面语句)
2019-05-08T12:39:02.png

Medium

<?php
if( isset( $_GET[ 'Login' ] ) ) {
    // Sanitise username input
    $user = $_GET[ 'username' ];
    $user = mysql_real_escape_string( $user );

    // Sanitise password input
    $pass = $_GET[ 'password' ];
    $pass = mysql_real_escape_string( $pass );
    $pass = md5( $pass );

    // Check the database
    $query  = "SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE user = '$user' AND password = '$pass';";
    $result = mysql_query( $query ) or die( '<pre>' . mysql_error() . '</pre>' );

    if( $result && mysql_num_rows( $result ) == 1 ) {
        // Get users details
        $avatar = mysql_result( $result, 0, "avatar" );

        // Login successful
        echo "<p>Welcome to the password protected area {$user}</p>";
        echo "<img src=\"{$avatar}\" />";
    }
    else {
        // Login failed
        sleep( 2 );
        echo "<pre><br />Username and/or password incorrect.</pre>";
    }

    mysql_close();
}
?>

中级别代码与低级相比,在输入账号密码处增加了 mysql_real_escape_string() 函数处理,该函数会对 \x00, \n, \r, \, ', ", \x1a 字符进行转义,故此处的 注入 有了限制,爆破可以,和上面一样就不重复。

High

<?php
if( isset( $_GET[ 'Login' ] ) ) {
    // Check Anti-CSRF token
    checkToken( $_REQUEST[ 'user_token' ], $_SESSION[ 'session_token' ], 'index.php' );

    // Sanitise username input
    $user = $_GET[ 'username' ];
    $user = stripslashes( $user );
    $user = mysql_real_escape_string( $user );

    // Sanitise password input
    $pass = $_GET[ 'password' ];
    $pass = stripslashes( $pass );
    $pass = mysql_real_escape_string( $pass );
    $pass = md5( $pass );

    // Check database
    $query  = "SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE user = '$user' AND password = '$pass';";
    $result = mysql_query( $query ) or die( '<pre>' . mysql_error() . '</pre>' );

    if( $result && mysql_num_rows( $result ) == 1 ) {
        // Get users details
        $avatar = mysql_result( $result, 0, "avatar" );

        // Login successful
        echo "<p>Welcome to the password protected area {$user}</p>";
        echo "<img src=\"{$avatar}\" />";
    }
    else {
        // Login failed
        sleep( rand( 0, 3 ) );
        echo "<pre><br />Username and/or password incorrect.</pre>";
    }

    mysql_close();
}

// Generate Anti-CSRF token
generateSessionToken();
?>

代码里加入了Token,可以防止 csrf,增加爆破难度。账户密码输入还加入了stripslashes( )函数(stripslashes函数:去除字符串中的反斜线字符,如果有两个连续的反斜线,则只去掉一个),进一步防止注入。每次服务器返回的登陆页面中都会包含一个随机的user_token的值,用户每次登录时都要将user_token一起提交。服务器收到请求后,会优先做token的检查,再进行sql查询。

impossible

<?php
if( isset( $_POST[ 'Login' ] ) ) {
    // Check Anti-CSRF token
    checkToken( $_REQUEST[ 'user_token' ], $_SESSION[ 'session_token' ], 'index.php' );

    // Sanitise username input
    $user = $_POST[ 'username' ];
    $user = stripslashes( $user );
    $user = mysql_real_escape_string( $user );

    // Sanitise password input
    $pass = $_POST[ 'password' ];
    $pass = stripslashes( $pass );
    $pass = mysql_real_escape_string( $pass );
    $pass = md5( $pass );

    // Default values
    $total_failed_login = 3;
    $lockout_time       = 15;
    $account_locked     = false;

    // Check the database (Check user information)
    $data = $db->prepare( 'SELECT failed_login, last_login FROM users WHERE user = (:user) LIMIT 1;' );
    $data->bindParam( ':user', $user, PDO::PARAM_STR );
    $data->execute();
    $row = $data->fetch();

    // Check to see if the user has been locked out.
    if( ( $data->rowCount() == 1 ) && ( $row[ 'failed_login' ] >= $total_failed_login ) )  {
        // User locked out.  Note, using this method would allow for user enumeration!
        //echo "<pre><br />This account has been locked due to too many incorrect logins.</pre>";

        // Calculate when the user would be allowed to login again
        $last_login = $row[ 'last_login' ];
        $last_login = strtotime( $last_login );
        $timeout    = strtotime( "{$last_login} +{$lockout_time} minutes" );
        $timenow    = strtotime( "now" );

        // Check to see if enough time has passed, if it hasn't locked the account
        if( $timenow > $timeout )
            $account_locked = true;
    }

    // Check the database (if username matches the password)
    $data = $db->prepare( 'SELECT * FROM users WHERE user = (:user) AND password = (:password) LIMIT 1;' );
    $data->bindParam( ':user', $user, PDO::PARAM_STR);
    $data->bindParam( ':password', $pass, PDO::PARAM_STR );
    $data->execute();
    $row = $data->fetch();

    // If its a valid login...
    if( ( $data->rowCount() == 1 ) && ( $account_locked == false ) ) {
        // Get users details
        $avatar       = $row[ 'avatar' ];
        $failed_login = $row[ 'failed_login' ];
        $last_login   = $row[ 'last_login' ];

        // Login successful
        echo "<p>Welcome to the password protected area <em>{$user}</em></p>";
        echo "<img src=\"{$avatar}\" />";

        // Had the account been locked out since last login?
        if( $failed_login >= $total_failed_login ) {
            echo "<p><em>Warning</em>: Someone might of been brute forcing your account.</p>";
            echo "<p>Number of login attempts: <em>{$failed_login}</em>.<br />Last login attempt was at: <em>${last_login}</em>.</p>";
        }

        // Reset bad login count
        $data = $db->prepare( 'UPDATE users SET failed_login = "0" WHERE user = (:user) LIMIT 1;' );
        $data->bindParam( ':user', $user, PDO::PARAM_STR );
        $data->execute();
    }
    else {
        // Login failed
        sleep( rand( 2, 4 ) );

        // Give the user some feedback
        echo "<pre><br />Username and/or password incorrect.<br /><br/>Alternative, the account has been locked because of too many failed logins.<br />If this is the case, <em>please try again in {$lockout_time} minutes</em>.</pre>";

        // Update bad login count
        $data = $db->prepare( 'UPDATE users SET failed_login = (failed_login + 1) WHERE user = (:user) LIMIT 1;' );
        $data->bindParam( ':user', $user, PDO::PARAM_STR );
        $data->execute();
    }

    // Set the last login time
    $data = $db->prepare( 'UPDATE users SET last_login = now() WHERE user = (:user) LIMIT 1;' );
    $data->bindParam( ':user', $user, PDO::PARAM_STR );
    $data->execute();
}

// Generate Anti-CSRF token
generateSessionToken();
?>

加入了可靠的防爆破机制,当检测到频繁的错误登录后,系统会将账户锁定,爆破也就无法继续。采用了更为安全的PDO(PHP Data Object)机制防御sql注入,这是因为不能使用PDO扩展本身执行任何数据库操作,而sql注入的关键就是通过破坏sql语句结构执行恶意的sql命令。

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